FIRST AID FOR ELECTRIC SHOCK

First Aid For Electric Shock

Children, especially toddlers, love sticking their little fingers anywhere and everywhere, especially into plug points and sockets. The human body is a good conductor of electricity, and contact with a live power source can cause significant burns, or may interfere with the heart’s electrical system.

Everyone has received minor electric shocks sometime or the other, which are no cause for concern. But once in a while, a lose wire or a faulty household appliance can shock the life out of you – literally. Most of the
fatal electric shocks happen at home. 
 

Here’s what you can do if it happens in your home. 

  • The victim usually gets stuck to the source of the electricity, and it is important that you first separate him from the electrical source.
  • Turn off the power supply switch and disconnect the plug. It’s best to simply turn off the main power supply or pull out the fuse. Often, simply turning off the switch may not stop the flow of electricity.
  • In certain circumstances it may be quicker to simply pull the victim away from the electrical source.
  • Do NOT touch the victim with your bare hands, or the electric current will pass through you as well.
  • If you are barefoot, stand of some clothes or any hand non-conductive material like wood or paper. Make sure you are not standing on anything that is wet.
  • Throw a blanket over the victim and try to separate him from the source. Maje sure you don’t touch him though. You could also use dry, nonconductive material such as a wooden broom handle or a chair to separate the victim from the live current. whatever is handy.
  • Once the victim has been separated, check to see if he is breathing. If breathing has stopped or seems slow, administer CPR immediately.
  • Let his head be slightly lower than the rest of the body, and raise his legs.
  • Cover the victim with a blanket.
  • Move the victim as little as possible. He may have suffered injuries to his spine and neck.
  • If the victim has a burn, remove the clothing from the burned area (unless it’s stuck to the skin) and rinse it in cool, running water. Cover the burn with a dressing.
  • Don’t apply ice or any other ointment or cotton dressing to the burn.
  • Call for emergency medical attention as soon as possible.

FAINTING

About Fainting
   Common Causes
   Symptoms
   Treatment 
   Prevention

    About Fainting

  • Fainting occurs due to decreased blood supply to brain
    • A fainting spell is usually very brief
      • It may or may not have medical significance

   Common Causes

  • Anxiety
    • Emotional upset
      • Stress
        • Severe pain
          • Skipping meals
            • Standing up too fast
              • Standing for a long time in a crowd
                • Some medications
                  • Diabetes
                    • Blood Pressure 

   Symptoms

Before fainting, a person may experience the following:

  • Nausea
    • Giddiness
      • Excessive sweating
        • Dim vision
          • Rapid heart beat or palpitations

   Treatment

  • Fainting is a medical emergency, till proven otherwise
    • When a person feels faint-
      Make them sit down or lie down

      • If sitting, position head between knees
        • When a person faints, position him on his back
          • Check to see if airways are clear
            • Restore blood flow by 
              Loosening clothing/belts/collars

              • Elevate feet above head level

   Prevention

  • When symptoms appear, lie down
    • Try do avoid stress and anxiety
      • Carefully evaluate your medications
      • Take care of underlying medical conditions

FIRST AID FOR CHOKING

First Aid for Choking
 

Here are some tips your must know.

Children choke on pieces of food, toys, and household objects. Babies and toddlers are at greatest risk because they have a natural tendency to put things in their mouths, they cannot chew well, and their small upper airways can easily become obstructed. Fortunately, choking deaths are preventable. Here’s how to keep your child safe.

In an Emergency :

When a child gags on a drink or a piece of food, she will often cough forcefully enough to clear her airway. Don’t slap her back or reach into her mouth with your fingers while she’s coughing; it could push the object farther down her windpipe. If your child can no longer speak, cough, or cry, and her face starts turning blue, you must intervene immediately. Have someone call for help while you begin first aid.

HOW TO SAVE AN OLDER CHILD ( MORE THAN ONE YEAR)

  1. Perform the Heimlich maneuver: Stand or kneel behind your child with your arms around her waist. (If she is unconscious, lay her on her back and kneel at her feet.)
  2. Make a fist and hold it with your other hand against your child’s abdomen, just above the navel and below the rib cage. (If your child is lying down, place the heel of your hand in the middle of her stomach just above the belly button and below the rip cage, resting your other hand on the top of the first.) Pressing firmly but gently on her abdomen, give upwards thrusts in sets of five until the object is expelled.
  3. If the object isn’t cleared and your child loses consciousness, lay her on her back and open her mouth. If you see the obstruction, carefully sweep you index finger across the back or her throat to remove it.
  4. Perform rescue breathing: Open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin up.
  5. Keeping the airway open, pinch your child’s nose shut with your fingers, seat your mouth over hers, and give two slow breaths. Continue mouth-to-mouth respiration until she resumes normal breathing or medical help arrives. Note: If your child’s chest doesn’t begin to rise, the object is still blocking her airway. Repeat steps 1 to 5 until the object is coughed up or help arrives.
  6. Even if your child seems fine after a choking incident that requires intervention, take her to the doctor to make sure that the blockage has been completely removed and that there is no lasting damage.

 

To Lower Your Childs Risk

Keep your child away from garbage, especially any kitchen trash that he can swallow, such as eggshells or pop tabs from soda cans.

Mash, puree, or blend your baby’s food thoroughly before serving it. For toddlers, cut all food into smaller-than-bite-size pieces.

Choose age-appropriate toys that do not contain small parts. If you have older children, keep their toys, which may contain choking hazards, out of your toddler’s reach.

never let your child chew on a balloon, which he could inhale.

Make sure that your child is sitting down while he eats, and never leave him unattended during meals.

Do not allow your child to play games with his food – filling his cheeks like a chipmunk or catching popcorn in his mouth, for example. Teach him to chew and swallow before talking and laughing.

Too Tiny for Tots

Once your baby starts to crawl, be sure to keep potential choking hazards – any object OR toy small enough to fit through a toilet paper tube – out of kids’ reach. Here’s are some common culprits:

Coins
Un-inflated rubber balloons and pieces of broken balloon
Button Batteries
Toys with small detachable parts
Marbles
Safety pins
Tacks
Jewelry
Buttons
Crayons
Pen Caps
Nails
Screws

Food Hazards

Most choking emergencies are caused by food. Do not give a child under 4 anything to eat that is round, hard, small, thick and sticky, smooth, or slippery. Some foods to avoid:

  • Sunflower Seeds
  • Ice cubes
  • Gum
  • Caramel
  • Raw peas
  • Popcorn
  • Fish with bones
  • Raw Celery
  • Pretzel nuggets
  • Mini Marshmallows
  • Whole grapes
  • Hot dogs and sausage
  • Large pieces of meat
  • Hard candy
  • Nuts (especially peanuts)
  • Raw carrots (including baby carrots and coin-shaped slices)
  • Peanut butter (unless it is spread very thinly)
  • Large pieces of dried fruit (apricots, apples, prunes)

NEAR DROWNING

Near-Drowning

Near-drowning is when a person is in danger of drowning. Each year, almost 8,000 people die from drowning. Seventy percent of all near-drowning victims recover; 25% die, and 5% have brain damage.

A toddler can drown in as little as 2 inches of water in a bathtub, sink, etc. Toilet bowls are unsafe, too, if a small child falls into one head-first.

Signs & Symptoms

  • A person is in the water with signs of distress. He or she can’t stay above water, swims unevenly, signals for help, etc.
  • Blue lips or ears. The skin is cold and pale.
  • Bloated abdomen. Vomiting. Choking.
  • Confusion. Lethargy.
  • The person does not respond or can’t breathe.

 

Causes

  • Not being able to swim. Being in water too deep and too rough for one’s ability to swim.
  • Water sport and other accidents. Not following water safety rules. Not wearing a life preserver, etc. Unsupervised swimming.
  • Falling through ice while fishing, skating, etc.
  • Injury or problems that occur while swimming, boating, etc. Examples are leg or stomach cramps, fatigue, and alcohol or drug use. A heart attack, stroke, seizure, and a marine animal bite or sting may have occurred.

 

Treatment

Immediate medical care is needed for near-drowning.

FIRST AID FOR DROWNING

First Aid for Drowning

Emergency steps :

Kids are especially at risk because they’re curious and attracted to water but are not yet able to understand how dangerous it is.  If your child is the victim of a near-drowning, this fast-action rescue plan can prevent a tragedy.

Surprising Drowning Hazards

Did you know that a small child can drown in as little as one to two inches of water – which is just enough to submerge her mouth and nose?

Bathtubs: Never leave a child under 4 alone in the tub or near a running bath.

Buckets and containers: A curious toddler can fall headfirst into a water-filled bucket and be unable to get out. Even a cooler filled with melting ice can be a drowning hazard.

Baby bath seats or rings: Never leave your child unattended in a bath seat – he could slip down into the water and get trapped underneath, or the ring could tip over.

Toilet bowls: Keep toilet cover down and bathroom door closed at all times. Install a toilet-cover safety latch.

Diaper pails: Make sure the top of your diaper pail fits securely and can’t be lifted off by small fingers.

Wading pools: Empty child-size pools after use and store on their sides.

In an Emergency case

Your first priority is to get a drowning child out of the water as soon as possible. If she isn’t breathing, place her on her back on a firm surface. Immediately begin rescue breathing, below, and have someone call for help. Don’t assume it’s too late to save a child’s life – even if she’s unresponsive, continue performing CPR and do not stop until medical professionals take over.

1. To open your child’s airway, gently tilt her head back with one hand, and lift her chin with the other. Put your ear to the child’s mouth and nose, and look, listen and feel for signs that she is breathing.

2. If your child doesn’t seem to be breathing

A Infants under age 1: Place your mouth over infant’s nose and lips and give two breaths, each lasting about 1 1/2 seconds. Look for the chest to rise and fall.

B Children 1 and older: Pinch child’s nose and seal your lips over her mouth. Give two slow, full breaths (1 1/2 to 2 seconds each). Wait for the chest to rise and fall before giving the second breath.

3. If the chest rises, check for a pulse (see number 4).
If the chest doesn’t rise, try again. Retilt the head, lift the child’s chin, and repeat the breaths.

4. Check for a pulse: Put two fingers on your child’s neck to the side of the Adam’s apple (for infants, feel inside the arm between the elbow and shoulder). Wait five seconds. If there is a pulse, give one breath every three seconds. Check for a pulse every minute, and continue rescue breathing until the child is breathing on her own or help arrives.

5. If you can’t find a pulse then …..

A Infants under age 1: Imagine a line between the child’s nipples, and place two fingers just below its centerpoint. Apply five half-inch chest compressions in about three seconds. After five compressions, seal your lips over your child’s mouth and nose and give one breath.

B Children 1 and older: Use the heel of your hand (both hands for a teenager or adult) to apply five quick one-inch chest compressions to the middle of the breastbone (just above where the ribs come together) in about three seconds. After five compressions, pinch your child’s nose, seal your lips over his mouth, and give one full breath.

All ages: continue the cycle of five chest compressions followed by a breath for one minute, then check for a pulse. Repeat cycle until you find a pulse or help arrives and takes over.

Note: These instructions are not a substitute for CPR training, which all parents and caretakers should have.

FIRST AID FOR SHOCK

First Aid for Shock

Causes of Shock

Recognition of Shock

Treatment of Shock

The circulatory system distributes blood to all parts of the body, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the tissues.  If the circulatory system fails, and insufficient oxygen reaches the tissues, the medical condition known as shock occurs.  If the condition is not treated quickly, the vital organs can fail, ultimately causing death.  Shock is made worse by fear and pain.

Causes of Shock

Shock can develop when the heart pump fails to work properly, causing a reduction in the pressure of the circulating blood.  The most common cause of this type of shock is a heart attack.

Shock can develop as a result of a reduction in the volume of fluid circulating around the body.  The most common examples of this are external or internal bleeding, or loss of other bodily fluids through severe diarrhoea, vomiting, or burns.  The blood supply is diverted from the surface to the core of the body.  The main symptoms and signs of shock relate to such redistribution of the circulation.

Recognition of Shock

Initially, a flow of adrenaline causes:

  • A rapid pulse.
  • Pale, grey skin, especially inside the lips.  If pressure is applied to a fingernail or earlobe, it will not regain its colour immediately.
  • Sweating, and cold, clammy skin (sweat does not evaporate).

 

As shock develops, there may be:

  • Weakness and giddiness.
  • Nausea, and sometimes vomiting.
  • Thirst.
  • Rapid, shallow breathing.
  • A weak, ‘thready’ pulse.  When the pulse at the wrist disappears, fluid loss may equal half the blood volume.

 

As the oxygen supply to the brain weakens:

  • The casualty may become restless, anxious and aggressive.
  • The casualty may yawn and gasp for air (‘air hunger’).
  • The casualty will eventually become unconscious.
  • Finally, the heart will stop.

 

Treatment of Shock

DO NOT let the casualty move unnecessarily, eat, drink, or smoke.

DO NOT leave the casualty unattended.  Reassure the casualty constantly.

  • Treat any cause of shock which can be remedied (such as external bleeding).
  • Lay the casualty down, keeping the head low.
  • Raise and support the casualty’s legs (be careful if suspecting a fracture).
  • Loosen tight clothing, braces, straps or belts, in order to reduce constriction at the neck, chest and waist.
  • Insulate the casualty from cold, both above and below.  Contact the emergency service.
  • Check and record breathing, pulse and level of response.  Be prepared to resuscitate the casualty if necessary.

DRAW HITCH OR HIGHWAY MAN’S HITCH

DRAW HITCH OR HIGHWAY MAN’S HITCH OR THIEF HITCH

The highwayman’s hitch is a type of knot. It is a quick-release, draw loop hitch popular for temporarily securing horses. There are two main features to this hitch. It can be untied with a tug of the working end, and the working and standing ends are released on the same side of the object (ex. pipe fence rail) that was tied on to.

Both of these features are desirable when dealing with horse emergencies where a panicked animal may be straining against a tied off lead rope. Because the working (free) and standing (horse) ends release on the same side of the object tied to, the free end of the rope is not whipped around behind the rail by the animal, thereby forcing the quick-release grip on the rope to be abandoned.

DRAW HITCH

The knot is three bights linked through one another. To tie, begin by forming a bight behind the pole. Next, pass a bight formed from the standing part (the end that will receive tension) over the pole and through the first bight. Then, pass a bight formed from the working end over the pole and through the second bight. Pull the standing part tight to ensure that it holds. Until the knot is tightened and properly dressed the highwayman’s hitch has little holding power. When properly tied to posts or rails of approximately 2.5 – 3 inches diameter using the large diameter, compressible ropes commonly used for hose leads, it can be a remarkably secure knot.

FIREMAN’S CHAIR KNOT

 FIREMAN’S CHAIR KNOT

FIREMAN'S CHAIR KNOT

FIREMAN'S CHAIR KNOT

Make half hitch. Right under left.
Make a second half hitch. Again right under left.
Bring right hitch in front of left hitch.

Grab hitches as shown. Pull through.
Make another half hitch. Put loop through.
Make half hitch on the left. Put loop through.
Pull ends to tighten

Use:
The fireman’s chair knot is a rescue knot. There are two loops formed. One which goes under the arms; the other under the legs of person.
Care should be taken when tying this knot.

MANHARNESS KNOT

MANHARNESS KNOT

MANHARNESS KNOT

The principal use of this knot is to make a loop in the middle of a rope that is being used for hauling or climbing. A man can then use the loop as a harness over his shoulder so he can put his full weight to its best use. Form an underhand loop as shown at top. Grasp the loop at (A) and lay it over the part of rope shown by the arrow. The result will be shown in the middle drawing. Now grasp the rope at (B) and draw it up under and over as shown at bottom. This forms the bight which becomes the loop for your shoulder. Draw the knot tight before using it.

WEST COUNTRY WHIPPING

How to make a West Country Whipping

WEST COUNTRY WHIPPING

Pass the twine round the rope and tie an overhand knot. Repeat behind the rope and tie another. Continue making overhand knots in front and behind to reach the diameter of the rope. Finish with a square (reef) knot. Or add more overhand knots, thread the ends through the rope and trim them.

 

More details about the The West Country Whipping


The West Country Whipping

Animation To photograph this animation, large diameter cord was used. When tied with normal whipping twine, this makes a satisfactory, neat whipping.

Uses: The West Country Whipping (ABOK # 3458, p 548) must be the easiest whipping to teach and learn – merely a series of overhand knots completed with a reef knot! No equipment is required except the whipping twine. At best, it is only a reasonably satisfactory way of securing the end of a rope. The final reef knot can shake loose followed by each overhand knot. However, it does fail slowly – the overhand knots work their way loose in succession and, as each one loosens, an opportunity is presented to procrastinate: tie another reef knot and put off having to whip the end properly with a better whipping.

Techniques: There are several variations of this whipping:

  • Where to Start: When whipping a rope’s end it seems natural to wind the twine outwards towards the end. There is, however, an advantage in starting at the end and winding the twine inwards: when the whipping is completed, the ends can be pulled through the body of the rope to prevent them unravelling.
  • Reef Knot: The classic description completes this whipping with a reef knot with the ends trimmed. A heavily used rope will shake this reef loose. If a needle is available it is worth burying the ends by pulling them through the rope.
  • Multiple Reefs: The West Country can be completed with a stack of reef knots but this leaves an unsightly tail. If a needle is available, this string of reefs can be pulled through the rope to bury it.
  • Start with a Constrictor: A quick way to start the West Country is to drop a Constrictor Knot on the end before tying overhand knots. This has the advantage of quickly gaining very secure control of the rope’s end. It also leaves a fairly reliable last defense if the whipping comes undone.