Posted by: ramasamypravesh | January 31, 2011





Square lashings are used to bind together two spars that are at right angles with one another.

i) Place the poles on the ground in the shape of a cross. Tie a clove hitch around the bottom pole near the crosspiece. Twist the free end of the rope around its standing part and tuck it out of the way. 
ii) Make three or four wraps around the spars, keeping the rope very tight. As you form the wraps, lay the rope on the outside of each previous turn around the crosspiece, and on the inside of each previous turn around the bottom pole. 
iii) Then wind three or four frapping turns around the wrapping to tighten the lashing as much as you can.  
iv) Finish it off with another clove hitch.

Posted by: ramasamypravesh | January 31, 2011



Slings are used to support an injured arm, or to supplement treatment for another injury such as fractured ribs. Generally, the most effective sling is made with a triangular bandage. Every first aid kit, no matter how small, should have at least two of these bandages as essential items.

Although triangular bandages are preferable, any material, ex. tie, belt, or piece of twine or rope, can be used in an emergency. If no likely material is to hand, and injured arm can be adequately supported by inserting it inside the casualty’s shirt or blouse. Similarly, a safety pin applied to a sleeve and secured to clothing on the chest may suffice.

There are essentially three types of sling; the arm sling for injuries to the forearm, the St John sling for injuries to the shoulder, and the ‘collar-and-cuff’ or clove hitch for injuries to the upper arm and as supplementary support to fractured ribs.

On application of any sling, always check the circulation to the limb by feeling for the pulse at the wrist, or squeezing a fingernail and observing for change of color in the nail bed.

The Arm Sling

1. Support the injured forearm approximately parallel to the ground with the wrist slightly higher than the elbow.

2. Place an open triangular bandage between the body and the arm, with its apex towards the elbow.

3. Extend the upper point of the bandage over the shoulder on the uninjured side.

4. Bring the lower point up over the arm, across the shoulder on the injured side to join the upper point and tie firmly with a reef knot.

5. Ensure the elbow is secured by folding the excess bandage over the elbow and securing with a safety pin.

St John Sling

1. Support the casualty’s arm with the elbow beside the body and the hand extended towards the uninjured shoulder.

2. Place an opened triangular bandage over the forearm and hand, with the apex towards the elbow.

3. Extend the upper point of the bandage over the uninjured shoulder.

4. Tuck the lower part of the bandage under the injured arm, bring it under the elbow and around the back and extend the lower point up to meet the upper point at the shoulder.

5. Tie firmly with a reef knot.

6. Secure the elbow by folding the excess material and applying a safety pin, then ensure that the sling is tucked under the arm giving firm support.

‘Collar-and-Cuff’ (Clove Hitch)

1. Allow the elbow to hang naturally at the side and place the hand extended towards the shoulder on the uninjured side.

2. Form a clove hitch by forming two loops — one towards you, one away from you.

3. Put the loops together by sliding your hands under the loops and closing with a “clapping” motion. If you are experienced at forming a clove hitch, then apply a clove hitch directly on the wrist, but take care not to move the injured arm.

4. Slide the clove hitch over the hand and gently pull it firmly to secure the wrist.

5. Extend the points of the bandage to either side of the neck and tie firmly with a reef knot.

6. Allow the arm to hang comfortably. Should further support be required, ex. For support to fractured ribs, apply triangular bandages around the body and upper arm to hold the arm firmly against the chest.

Posted by: ramasamypravesh | January 31, 2011


Roller Bandages
Roller bandages are long strips of material which are rolled up for easy use.  They come in different widths and material.

Roller Bandages: Gauze or Cotton Roller Bandage
Gauze and cotton bandages are non-conforming.
This means that they do not stretch, and will not mould around the part of the body to which they are applied.

Non-conforming bandages do not stay on very well.
If you have both types of bandage in your first aid kit, it is best to use the conforming bandages first. 

Roller Bandages: Conforming Roller Bandage
Conforming bandages are designed to stretch.
This allows them to mould to the shape of the parts to which they are applied.

Conforming bandages can be used on their own to provide support to an injured joint or muscle.
They can also secure pads and dressings, when this is necessary to control bleeding.

Applying Roller Bandages
All roller bandages should be applied in the following manner.

        1.  Hold the bandage so that the head or rolled part is on top and the tail is pointing inward.

        2.  Pass the rolled part from hand to hand, allowing it to unroll as you go. Make sure that each turn overlaps the last by two thirds of its width.

        3.  Fasten the end with tape or tuck the end in and check that the bandage is not too tight. 

There may be occasions where you need to give first aid to a sick or injured person but no first aid kit is available. 

If a kit is not available, you will need to improvise first aid equipment, by using whatever you can find.

For example, a broomstick or umbrella could be used to splint a fractured limb.
A couple of T-shirts could be used as padding around an injury. 

You should not let the absence of a first aid kit prevent you from offering first aid to a casualty. 

If you needed to improvise a dressing for a person with a cut on their hand you would use a handkerchief. A clean handkerchief makes an excellent pad or dressing for small wounds.

If you needed to improvise a bandage you could use stockings. Clean pantyhose or stockings make excellent short bandages.

If you needed to improvise a splint for a suspected fractured arm you would use a newspaper. A newspaper makes a useful splint because when it is folded and creased it becomes quite solid and will support and immobilise a fracture very well.

If you needed to improvise a sling for a person with an injured upper arm you would use a belt. The belt would make an ideal sling because it will easily take the weight of the arm. Because it is fairly wide, it is also less likely to interfere with circulation.
Posted by: ramasamypravesh | January 31, 2011


Triangular Bandages
A First Aid Kit will typically contain triangular bandages which are large, triangular pieces of material, with two sides about 1 metre long, and the third about 1.4 metres. 

Triangular bandages can be used as:
        ·       Collar & Cuff Sling
        ·       St John Sling
        ·       Full Arm Sling
        ·       Broad Bandage
        ·       Narrow Bandage
        ·       Pad

Triangular bandages: Collar & Cuff Sling 
The collar and cuff sling is useful for a casualty with a fracture of the upper arm or an injured hand.

Triangular bandages: St John Sling
The St John sling is useful for a casualty with an injured shoulder, collar bone, hand or fingers.

It is the best sling for shoulder and collarbone injuries because it supports the whole arm and takes the weight of the arm off the injured shoulder or collar bone.  In the case of hand or finger injuries, it can be used to elevate the injured part.

Triangular bandages: Full Arm Sling 
The full arm sling is used to support an injured forearm or wrist.

It is the best sling for these injuries because it forms a comfortable cradle which spreads the weight of the forearm evenly along its whole length.  This prevents the damaged parts from pushing together or pulling apart as they would if the other slings were used.

Triangular bandages: Broad Bandage
A broad bandage is simply a triangular bandage which is folded and used to tie on splints and dressings. 

First, you fold it in half, point to base. 

Then you fold it in half again.

You now have a broad bandage. 

Triangular bandage: Narrow Bandage
A narrow bandage has one more fold than the broad bandage and is mainly used for the collar & cuff sling. 

First, you fold it in half, point to base. 

Then you fold it in half again to make a broad bandage. 

Then you fold it in half again.

You now have a narrow bandage. 

Triangular bandage: Pad
If you do not have a sterile pad in your First Aid Kit, you can use a triangular bandage as a pad.

First, you fold it in half, point to base. 

Then you fold it in half again to make a broad bandage. 

Then you fold it in half again.

You now have a narrow bandage. 

Then fold the two ends into the middle. 

Now fold both ends into the middle again. 

Fold what is left in half to make a pad.

When a triangular bandage is folded like this, it is easy to store it in a first aid kit.

You can also use it in this form if you need to control bleeding.

Posted by: ramasamypravesh | January 31, 2011


Patrol  corner

The patrol corner is where we put interesting and instructive documents that will interest Scouts and adult leaders alike.


When a Patrol gets together to discuss and take decisions (what they want to do, how much to be paid as subs should be, where they would like to camp, etc) it is called a Patrol-in-Council.

There shall be a Patrol-in-Council for every Patrol. The Patrol-in-Council shall consist of all members of the Patrol. Patrol Leader shall be the Chairman. The Patrol-in-Council shall deal with all affairs of the Patrol.


There shall be a Court-of-Honor for every Troop. The Court-of-Honor shall consist of Troop Leader, Asst. Troop Leader and Patrol Leader; Seconds may be admitted as members of the Court-of-Honor except when matters of discipline are dealt with. Troop Leader, Asst. Troop Leader or one of the Patrol Leaders elected shall function as the Chairman and one of the members elected shall function as Secretary. The Court-of-Honor shall plan the activities and deal with internal matters of the Troop and also matters of finance and discipline. The Scoutmaster and Assistant Scoutmaster shall act as advisers.

Posted by: ramasamypravesh | January 31, 2011



Let’s say that a new Patrol has just been formed under a new Patrol Leader. What generally happens next? At the very first meeting the fellows get out the Handbook For Boys to look over the list of Patrol names for the purpose of picking one for themselves. And what do they pick. Usually one that “seems” all right and “sounds” OK. “Flying Eagles! That’s us!” And that’s that!

*   *   *   *   *

Patrol Emblems

Now that you have a name for the Patrol, you’ll want to tell the world who you are.

You do this by picking an emblem or “totem” design for your gang, then using it on the Patrol flag. ..on the medallions the boys wear on their Scout shirts. decorate the Patrol den. mark all Patrol equipment and as a special Patrol signature.

The Patrol Flag

You can’t very well imagine a real Scout Patrol without a flag of its own-one that follows the gang wherever it goes.

*   *   *  *   *

If you’re a new Patrol, get busy and get yourself a flag …. Making the Patrol flag should be a Patrol job, not a one-man affair…. When you have the flag ready, remember that it does not become a real Patrol flag unless it follows the Patrol wherever it goes.  The dates and place names on the staff are put there not only to show where the Patrol has been, but also so that the flag can say, “I was there too, by golly!”  Before you know it, the boys will instinctively feel that something is wrong when their emblem isn’t with them

*    *    *   *   *


Every Scout Patrol has its own distinctive Patrol call. If your Patrol has picked the name of an animal or bird, your call, naturally, is the call or cry of that animal or bird.

If you have picked some other kind of a name, you’ll need to choose an animal or bird call to go with it. Indians usually had such tribal calls, and many explorers use them.

The Patrol call is given by the Patrol Leader to get the gang together. Besides, it is used by a member of the Patrol to let the others know where he is without telling the rest of the world.

If you’re a member of the Owl Patrol, for example, you’ll make the hoot of the owl in such a lifelike manner that the ordinary person will think it comes from a real owl-while your boys, on the other hand, will recognize the hoot as the Patrol call and will know where to look for you.

Get someone who is good at imitating animal and bird calls to teach the call to your whole Patrol- whether the grunt of a bear, the clap of a beaver’s tail, the bellow of a bison, the scream of eagle or hawk, the bark of a fox, the caw of a raven, or whatever it is.

As soon as a new boy joins the Patrol, get him to learn the call as quickly as possible.

It is a rule in Scouting that a Scout makes his own call only and never uses the call of another Patrol for any purpose whatever.


Did you ever attend a college football game? If you did, you’ll remember the way the college boys cheered their teams with thundering yells. Did you see what effect that cheering had on the players? It made them want to do their best for their Alma Mater.

The same kind of cheering works in a Patrol. A good yell puts pep into the gang and builds team spirit. So make up your own and practice it until the fellows put everything they’ve got into it.

Posted by: ramasamypravesh | January 31, 2011


Patrol Leader  

“The patrol system is not one method in which Scouting for boys can be carried on. It is the only method.”

—Lord Baden-Powell, Scouting’s founder


The Patrol

The patrol is a group of Scouts who belong to a troop and who are probably similar in age, development, and interests. The patrol method allows Scouts to interact in a small group outside the larger troop context, working together as a team and sharing the responsibility of making their patrol a success. A patrol takes pride in its identity, and the members strive to make their patrol the best it can be. Patrols will sometimes join with other patrols to learn skills and complete advancement requirements. At other times they will compete against those same patrols in Scout skills and athletic competitions.

The members of each patrol elect one of their own to serve as patrol leader. The troop determines the requirements for patrol leaders, such as rank and age. To give more youths the opportunity to lead, most troops elect patrol leaders twice a year. Some may have elections more often.

Patrol size depends upon a troop’s enrollment and the needs of its members, though an ideal patrol size is eight Scouts. Patrols with fewer than eight Scouts should try to recruit new members to get their patrol size up to the ideal number.

Patrol Meetings

Patrol meetings may be held at any time and place. Many troops set aside a portion of each troop meeting for its patrols to gather. Others encourage patrols to meet on a different evening at the home of a patrol member. The frequency of patrol meetings is determined by upcoming events and activities that require planning and discussion.

Patrol meetings should be well-planned and businesslike. Typically, the patrol leader calls the meeting to order, the scribe collects dues, and the assistant patrol leader reports on advancement. The patrol leader should report any information from the latest patrol leaders’ council meeting. The bulk of the meeting should be devoted to planning upcoming activities, with specific assignments made to each patrol member.
Patrol Activities

Most patrol activities take place within the framework of the troop. However, patrols may also conduct day hikes and service projects independent of the troop, as long as they follow two rules:

         The Scoutmaster approves the activity.

         The patrol activity does not interfere with any troop function.
Patrol Spirit

Patrol spirit is the glue that holds the patrol together and keeps it going. Building patrol spirit takes time, because it is shaped by a patrol’s experiences—good and bad. Often misadventures such as enduring a thunderstorm or getting lost in the woods will contribute much in pulling a patrol together. Many other elements also will help build patrol spirit. Creating a patrol identity and traditions will help build each patrol member’s sense of belonging.

Every patrol needs a good name. Usually, the patrol chooses its name from nature, a plant or animal, or something that makes the patrol unique. A patrol might choose an object for its outstanding quality. For example, sharks are strong swimmers and buffaloes love to roam. The patrol may want to add an adjective to spice up the patrol name, such as the Soaring Hawks or the Rambunctious Raccoons.

A patrol flag is the patrol’s trademark, and it should be a good one. Have a competition to see who comes up with the best design and who is the best artist. Make the flag out of a heavy canvas and use permanent markers to decorate it. In addition to the patrol name, the patrol flag should have the troop number on it as well as the names of all the patrol members. Mount the flag on a pole, which also can be decorated. Remember, the patrol flag should go wherever the patrol goes.

Every patrol has a patrol yell, which should be short and snappy. Choose words that fit the patrol’s goals. Use the yell to announce to other patrols that your patrol is ready to eat or has won a patrol competition. Some patrols also have a patrol song.

Other patrol traditions include printing the patrol logo on the chuck box and other patrol property. Many troops designate patrol corners somewhere in the troop meeting room; patrols may decorate their corner in their own special way. Some patrols like to specialize in doing something extremely well, such as cooking peach cobbler or hobo stew.

The Patrol Leaders’ Council

As a patrol leader, you are a member of the patrol leaders’ council, and you serve as the voice of your patrol members. You should present the ideas and concerns of your patrol and in turn share the decisions of the patrol leaders’ council with your patrol members.

The patrol leaders’ council is made up of the senior patrol leader, who presides over the meetings; the assistant senior patrol leader, all patrol leaders, and the troop guide. The patrol leaders’ council plans the yearly troop program at the annual troop program planning conference. It then meets monthly to fine-tune the plans for the upcoming month.

Your Duties as Patrol Leader

When you accepted the position of patrol leader, you agreed to provide service and leadership to your patrol and troop. No doubt you will take this responsibility seriously, but you will also find it fun and rewarding. As a patrol leader, you are expected to do the following:

         Plan and lead patrol meetings and activities.

         Keep patrol members informed.

         Assign each patrol member a specific duty.

         Represent your patrol at all patrol leaders’ council meetings and the annual program planning conference.

         Prepare the patrol to participate in all troop activities.

         Work with other troop leaders to make the troop run well.

         Know the abilities of each patrol member.

         Set a good example.

         Wear the Scout uniform correctly.

         Live by the Scout Oath and Law.

         Show and develop patrol spirit.
Ten Tips for Being a Good Patrol Leader

  Keep Your Word. Don’t make promises you can’t keep.
  Be Fair to All. A good leader shows no favorites. Don’t allow friendships to keep you from being fair to all members of your patrol. Know who likes to do what, and assign duties to patrol members by what they like to do.
  Be a Good Communicator. You don’t need a commanding voice to be a good leader, but you must be willing to step out front with an effective “Let’s go.” A good leader knows how to get and give information so that everyone understands what’s going on.
  Be Flexible. Everything doesn’t always go as planned. Be prepared to shift to “plan B” when “plan A” doesn’t work.
  Be Organized. The time you spend planning will be repaid many times over. At patrol meetings, record who agrees to do each task, and fill out the duty roster before going camping.
  Delegate. Some leaders assume that the job will not get done unless they do it themselves. Most people like to be challenged with a task. Empower your patrol members to do things they have never tried.
  Set an Example. The most important thing you can do is lead by example. Whatever you do, your patrol members are likely to do the same. A cheerful attitude can keep everyone’s spirits up.
  Be Consistent. Nothing is more confusing than a leader who is one way one moment and another way a short time later. If your patrol knows what to expect from you, they will more likely respond positively to your leadership.
  Give Praise. The best way to get credit is to give it away. Often a “Nice job” is all the praise necessary to make a Scout feel he is contributing to the efforts of the patrol.
  Ask for Help. Don’t be embarrassed to ask for help. You have many resources at your disposal. When confronted with a situation you don’t know how to handle, ask someone with more experience for some advice and direction.


Training for Patrol Leaders

Scouting takes pride in giving youth members unique leadership opportunities and training. Patrol leaders may have the opportunity to participate in all or some of the following leadership training.

Introduction to Leadership

This is the first step of leadership training. It is usually conducted by the Scoutmaster within a few days after a troop election. It may last no more than an hour, but it should cover the responsibilities of a patrol leader and the needs for upcoming events within the troop.

Troop Junior Leader Training

This is a daylong training conference conducted by the Scoutmaster and senior patrol leader. Its purpose is to reinforce the patrol method and to allow members of the patrol leaders’ council to set goals for themselves, their patrols, and their troop.

Posted by: ramasamypravesh | January 31, 2011



This is a representative form of government used by Girl Scouts. It consists of two parts – the patrol and the Court of Honor. The spirit, vitality and welfare of the troop is the main objective of the patrol system.


  Patrols

  The Patrol Leader

  The Assistant Patrol Leader

  Patrol Treasurer

  Patrol Secretary

  Transportation Manager

  Commissary Manager

  Equipment Manager

  Health and Safety Manager

  Court of Honor

  Troop Secretary

  Troop Treasurer

  Installation of Patrol Leaders



The troop is divided into small groups, usually consisting of six to eight girls. Each group is called a patrol. Patrols can have interesting names chosen by the girls. Some names are based on the girls’ interests, the part of the country where they live, etc. A patrol interested in nature lore might be called “Tree Tops”. Patrols often invent an identifying emblem, which they use on a patrol flag and/or on their patrol equipment.

The troop is richer because of the strength and ingenuity of its patrols, all working together on troop plans.


Each patrol has a patrol leader, elected by the girls in her patrol, to serve for a time determined by the troop and the leaders. They vote for her, just as any responsible citizen votes for candidates for public office.

Before voting, read over the duties of the patrol leader, then ask yourself, “Will she do a good job? Is she the kind of girl who is fair or will she be bossy? Will she speak for everyone in our patrol at the Court of Honor? Does she have ideas that are fun and exciting?

These are important questions, for the patrol leader is in charge of seeing that things go well and smoothly. Here are some suggestions for the patrol leader’s duties.

  • Conducts regular patrol meetings using agenda made at Court of Honor with the troop leader and other patrol leaders.
  • Learns what her patrol wants to do by leading discussions and offering suggestions.
  • Represents her patrol at regular Court of Honor meetings by reporting on patrol progress and activities, getting needed assistance and sharing ideas with other patrol leaders.
  • Works with her assistant patrol leader and shares some of the leadership of the patrol with her.
  • Helps herself and others in her patrol to learn or practice Scouting skills.
  • Takes charge of any special assignment given to her patrol
  • Assigns duties to patrol members and sees that they are carried out.
  • Helps her patrol organize to get jobs done.
  • Consults with troop leaders for special help on plans or problems, and keeps them up-to-date on patrol activities.
  • Tries to live by the Promise and Law; she needs to set an example for the members of her patrol.

You may say to yourself, “What a lot for one girl to do!” Remember, though, that the patrol leader should have the cooperation of all the girls in her patrol. She can always call on the troop leader for advice, too, so she has help whenever she needs or wants it. Also, remember that a Cadette or Senior patrol leader may be ready to assume more responsibility than a patrol leader in a Junior troop.


Another girl elected by the patrol members is the assistant patrol leader. She serves for the same time as the patrol leader and her job is to help the patrol leader in every way she can. The assistant patrol leader does these things and others that she may be asked to do:

  • Takes over the job of the patrol leader in her absence.
  • Carries out leadership responsibilities delegated by the patrol leader – such as making a kaper chart or organizing a flag ceremony.

Every patrol needs a patrol leader and an assistant patrol leader, but a patrol that really gets things done sees that every member has a definite permanent job. This allows it to whirl into action, not confusion, to get the necessary things done quickly and save time for the real heart of a troop or patrol activity – to turn spur-of-the-moment ideas into fun-packed afternoons. Here is one plan for dividing the work of the patrol:

PATROL TREASURER: The Patrol Treasurer or Finance Manager is in charge of patrol financial matters.

  • Collects troop dues from patrol members, keeps a record of troop dues, and turns them over to Troop Treasurer.
  • Handles all money for the patrol.
  • Keeps financial record of patrol income and expenses.


PATROL SECRETARY: The Patrol Secretary or Recorder is in charge of patrol records.

  • Attends to patrol correspondence (invitations, thank-you notes).
  • Keeps log of patrol programs and attendance.
  • Fills in necessary information on permission slips.
  • Keeps a written record of each girl’s progress toward awards.


TRANSPORTATION MANAGER: The Transportation Manager is in charge of transportation for patrol events.

  • Makes a sure driver receives a thank-you note from secretary.
  • Works with Health and Safety Manager to make sure patrol members understand health and safety precautions for travelling by car, bicycle, foot, canoe, etc.
  • Finds out about interesting places the patrol can visit, how to get there, and how much it will cost.


COMMISSARY MANAGER: The Commissary Manager is in charge of patrol food.

  • Arranges for refreshments for special occasions.
  • Appoints shoppers for food and sees that it is purchased.
  • Sees that food is delivered on time, properly packed and stored.
  • Makes sure food is attractively served; works out plan for cleanup.


EQUIPMENT MANAGER: The Equipment Manager is in charge of patrol equipment.

  • Makes up list of personal equipment needed for program and gives a copy to each girl.
  • Makes out list of patrol equipment needed.
  • Secures, distributes, packs, and stores patrol equipment.
  • Makes sure equipment is labeled and kept in good condition.
  • Initiates making of patrol equipment (tin-can stove, cook kits, etc.)
  • Returns borrowed equipment.


HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGER: Make sure a first aid kit is available at all times.

  • Keeps first aid kit stocked, replacing items as necessary.
  • Alerts patrol to good health and safety practices.
  • Makes sure patrol members know what to do in case off fire, storm, accident, lost person, etc.
  • Knows how to reach the nearest doctor or hospital or emergency services number.
  • Sets up an emergency call system for patrol.

No matter which plan you use, yours, or the one suggested, make sure you can answer “Yes” to the following questions.

  1. Does each girl in the patrol have a specific job?
  2. Does she have a brief description of what she is to do?
  3. Will she really have an opportunity to do her hob because it is based on actual plans for the troop and the patrol?
  4. Are copies of each description with the name of the girl who has the hob kept in one place so everyone can see who is responsible for what/
  5. Is there a plan to evaluate the division after two or three months? Check to see if jobs need to be rearranged; if each girl has the job best suited to her talent; is it working for both the troop and patrol activities? Some troops elect new officers two or three times a year.



Every patrol member has a voice in the COH through the patrol leader. The COY is the heart of the troop. The COH consists of all patrol leaders in the troop, the Troop Secretary, The Troop Treasurer, and the troop leader. Each patrol leader represents her patrol faithfully at the COH meetings. If she cannot be there, she makes sure her patrol is represented.

These are some things the COH can do:

  • Plan interesting troop programs based on ideas submitted by the patrols
  • Make up ideas for activities and submit them to patrols through the patrol leaders.
  • Hear reports from patrols given by patrol leaders (and from committee chairmen, when needed).
  • Make arrangements for patrol leaders to learn new things to teach their patrol members.
  • Sometimes arrange for girls from different patrols to work together on special projects.

The COH can meet before, after, or during any regular troop meeting. These short meetings, ten minutes to half an hour in length, are for quick reports of patrol reactions, reminders of responsibilities for next week, or adjustment of plans.

At special meetings, usually every two or three months, the COH fills in the details of plans for the months ahead, and considers ideas and suggestions from patrols brought to the meetings by patrol leaders.

The COH thinks over the various ideas. Are they good? Will they work? How can we make them work? This is the way ideas are turned into actions for the troop. Even the best ideas need planning and work to make them come true.

The COH usually holds longer meetings at the beginning and end of the troop year. The first meeting is to get things started by deciding how many big events can be fitted into the year’s calendar. (The big events might include camping, trips, Court of Awards, council events, parties, service unit activities, community service projects, etc.) The last meeting is to evaluate how the troop has done.

An open COH meeting may be held so that everyone will know how the system works. All troop members attend as “silent watchers.”

TROOP SECRETARY: She is the official correspondent and secretary of the entire troop. Here are some suggested duties for the Troop Secretary:

  • Takes minutes and notes at Court of Honor and business meetings.
  • Answers troop mail.
  • Writes invitations and thank-you notes for gifts and services to the troops.
  • Keeps troop history up-to-date, such as writing an account of a camping trip.
  • If she is kept very busy, she might need an assistant. They need to have neat, clear handwriting, so that their notes are easy for others to read.


TROOP TREASURER: The Troop Treasurer is also elected by the entire troop. She may have these duties:

  • Keeps an account book, entering all money that is collected by the troop and all that is spent.
  • Receives dues from the patrol treasurers, records their payment in the account book, and deposits them in the troop’s bank or gives them to the troop leader for deposit.
  • Provides facts and figures to the COH when the troop’s yearly budget is mad and to any group spending troop money (food buyers for camping trip, decorations committee for troop party, etc.)
  • Makes financial report to the troop once a month.
  • Is prepared to make a report of troop finances at any time when asked.

Lord Baden-Powell started the patrol system with the COH. Girl Scouts, Girl Guides, and Boy Scouts use it all over the world. A Girl Scout troop belongs to all its members. The troop decides what it will do, and every girl helps to carry out the troop’s decisions. Each girl must do her part to make the patrol system a success!

Installation of Patrol Leaders

Set Up: Horseshoe formation
Leader announces purpose of ceremony
Leader: “Please present all patrol leaders to be installed.” (May be presented by former patrol leader.) (With patrol leader on her left, patrol member presents patrol leader, stepping back out of horseshoe, walks outside of horseshoe and stands at open end of horseshoe, introduces patrol leader and takes one step back.)
When all are in place:
Presenters: “May I present       name       , the newly elected patrol leader of                            patrol.” (steps back one step)
Leader: “Are you ready to take the patrol leader’s Oath?”
Patrol Leaders: “We are.”
Leader: “Repeat after me: As a patrol leader I will try to lead the patrol to the best of my ability; to keep order in my group at all times; that in the Court of Honor, I will speak for my patrol and not just for myself; that I will do my best to live up to the trust of my patrol.
Leader: “Members of patrols, repeat after me: As a member of Troop #     , I will do my best to be loyal and helpful to my patrol leader.”
As presenters pin on cords, leader says: “The cord of the patrol leader has two golden circles. The smaller circle represents the patrol you lead and serve. The larger circle in the cord is a symbol of the entire troop you serve in the Court of Honor.”
Leader gives Girl Scout Handshake to each patrol leader.
Presenters and patrol leaders return to horseshoe – form a friendship circle and sing taps.
Posted by: ramasamypravesh | January 29, 2011



One of the oldest and distinctive cultures of the world, the Indian culture is the result of the country’s rich and long history, ancient heritages, varied demography and unique geography. The different parts of India, the north, the south, the east and the west make a wonderful display of their distinctive culture that have fascinated people all over the world.

The language, dance, religions, music, various customs and architecture form the rich culture of Indian. In fact, the culture of India is perfect combination of varied sub-cultures that are spread throughout the Indian sub continent along with century old Indian tradition.


Among other things, the different religions are one of them that represent India. The religious culture of India is one of the most diverse in the whole world. The Indian sub-continent is the birthplace of various religions of the world, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. All these religions are collectively called Indian religions. Religions in India play an important role in the lives of majority of Indian. The religious culture among the various Indians has been imbibed since the early years of consciousness.

Apart from the major Indian religions, some other important religions like Christianity, Muslims, Jews, Parsis sects have been living side by side in India from time immemorial and are also representative of the religious culture of India.

When talking about religions, the festivals that are the most essential parts of the different religions of India must be mentioned. Some of the integral festivals that are representative of the religious culture of India are Holi, Id, Durga Puja, Christmas, Diwali, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Ramadan and many more.

Since majority of people in India are Hindu, the Hindu culture plays an important role in making the whole gamut of Indian culture. The different Hindu festivals, the rituals, norms and customs, cuisine and attire make a perfect display of the Hindu culture of India.

The languages form an important part of the rich culture of India. India is a land of various languages namely Bengali, Hindi, Sanskrit, Assamese, Kashmiri, Tamil, Urdu, Marathi and more. In fact, each of the different states of India is representative of the respective language culture. According to history, one of the oldest languages of India is Rigvedic Sanskrit, which dates back to 1500 BC.

The society of India is a perfect exhibition of the culture of India. The traditional Indian society is represented by family, festivals, names, marriages and many more. In this regard it must be mentioned that marriage is one of the most essential parts of the Indian society. India is rich in its marriage culture, arranged marriage for centuries have been considered the tradition of the society of India.

Dance forms in India

Here are some of the most popular dance forms of India :

       Chhau: This dance form originated in the region of Seraikella and is performed on the eve of the spring festival every year. The mask is the main focus of this dance. It is a traditional art form and is still performed all over the country.

       Bhangra: Bhangra is a popular folk dance of Punjab, North India. It is a dance performed on special occasions like weddings and festivals. The dance symbolizes and reflects the happiness of the Punjabi farmers.

       Mohiniattam: Mohiniattam is one of the major classical dance styles of India. It is an elegant dance form that originated from the land of Kerela and today, the dance form has spread to other parts of India as well.

       Manipuri: Manipuri is a popular dance of the state of Manipur. The main theme of the Manipuri dance is the love of Radha and Lord Krishna. In the 18th century the Manipuri dance blossomed into a classical dance form. /li>

       Myriad Emotions: It is a dance form in which myriad emotions are portrayed by the artist dancers. It originated from the Kuchipudi village, in the Krishna district of Andhra and its origin dates back to as far as the 2nd century B.C. Innumerable emotions ranging from pride to anger are expressed.

       Odissi Dance: It is one of the oldest classical dances of the country. The dance themes mainly centers on the eternal love stories of Radha and Krishna. The Odissi dance can be distinguished from other dance form by the colorful costumes, ornaments, dance steps and fine display of emotions of love and pangs of separation.

       Kathakali: Kathakali is a unique dance form of Kerela and dates back to the 17th century. The themes are mostly religious. The costume of the Kathakali dance is intricate and is one of the distinctive traits of this dance.

       Bharat Natyam: Bahrat Natyam is India’s ancient classical dance style. It originated from the land of Tamil Nadu and has come a long way since the time of its invention and days in the temples. This dance form is famous not only in India but also abroad. It is regarded as the most elegant of all the dance form in India.

Indian Music Forms


       Tradition – A story of Strings: The string instruments have reached great heights in recent times. The endless moments of ecstasy and pleasure one can derive by listening to the soothing sound of the string instruments, cannot be actually surpassed by any other form of instruments.

       Carnatic Music: The carnatic music of the South Indian exposes the rich history and culture of the past. It is considered to be the richest and oldest music tradition in the world. The south Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerela, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are famous for their strong presentation of the Carnatic music.

       Hindustani Music: The Hindustani Music has assumed a role of immense significance. It is based primarily on the raga system, which is a melodic scale comprising of notes. Each raga acquires a distinctive character of its own. Hindustani music is catchy, rhythmic and takes us to the depth of the Indian culture.


India, an amalgamation of different ethnic groups, varied cultures and different languages offers a lot of vivid colors in its wedding ceremonies. Be it a Hindu marriage, Christian wedding, Punjabi shaadi or a Muslim marriage, India gives you sneak peek into all. Traditional Indian wedding is a rainbow of colors. People of every religion and region celebrate this auspicious ceremony in their own special style. If in northern India you can be a part of Sikh weddings, Buddhist weddings, Arya Samaj weddings, in southern India Marathi marriage, Gujarati wedding, Telugu wedding and Christian wedding ceremonies will win your heart over. In eastern part of India you will come across Bengali wedding ceremonies. Find all about this splendid cultural affair in detail here.




‘List of historical monuments of India

Here is a list of the most popular monuments of India:

       Adilabad – The Fourth Fort of Delhi: Adilab is the fourth fort of Delhi, built by Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Much of the fort now lies in ruins but, the basic structure has survived.

       Adlaj Vav – An Architectural Marvel: The structure of the Adlaj Vav echoes the Indo-Islamic style of architecture. It is a unique water work, a five storied step-well and is located in a small village of Adlaj, 19 km from Ahmedabad.

       Agar Sain Ki Baoli: A step-well, known for its traditional Hindu style of architecture, Agar Sain Ki Baoli is located at the heart of the city of Delhi. The history of its origin is shrouded in mystery and there are a number of plausible assumptions about the age and name of its builder.

       Agra Fort: A UNESCO World Heritage site, Agra Fort is a massive building built by Akbar the great. The fort is made of red sandstone and is located on the banks of the Yamuna River.

       Akbar’s Tomb: A Mughal architectural masterpiece, Akbar’s Tomb is located in Sikander, which is a small suburb of Agra. The tomb is a bright red-tired structure and is different from previous Mughal buildings.

Alai Darwaza: Alai Darwaza is a magnificent gateway and belongs to the period of Delhi Sulatanate (1191-1526). It was built by Ala-ud-din Khilji in 1311 and showcases a new style of architecture.

       Bada Imambada: It is an important tourist attraction in Lucknow. The design pattern of the monument is the main attraction here. It reflects the era in which it was built. The great hall is presumed to be the largest hall in Asia.

       Bandnore Fort: It is a seven storied fort located in the colorful state of Rajasthan. The fort reflects the fascinating history of the past and typifies the medieval Indian military style of architecture.

       Bijai Mandal: The structure of the Bijai Mandal is a matter of controversy. It is neither a fort nor a tower. It is an oblong building which houses a number of rooms within in. The intriguing structure was built by Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, the second ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty.

       Cellular Jail: The Cellular Jail is located in Port Blair. The jail symbolizes the hardships and inhuman treatment, which the inmates had to encounter during their struggle to attain freedom from the clutches of the British.

       Charminar: A famous mosque and monument in the city of Hyderabad, Charminar stands as a pivotal structure around which the glory and history of Hyderabad prevails. The Charminar was built by Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah, the Sultan of Golconda in 1591.

       Chittorgarh Fort: The fort is an exemplification of the Rajput style of architecture and highlights the story of the Rajput rulers who laid down their life fighting.

       Fatehpur Sikri: It is a majestic city of the Mughal dynasty and was built by the Mughal Emperor Akbar. The Fatehpur Sikri is an amalgamation of different architectural traditions.

       Ferozshah Kotla: The citadel was built by Ferozshah Tughlaq. Ferozshah Kotla was the capital city of Ferozshah Tughlaq.

       Fort St. Georgefirst Fort of the Colonial Era: Built in 1640, it is the first fort that was built by the British in India. It is located on the coastal areas of the Bay of Bengal and is illustrative of the military architecture.

       Golconda Fort: The fort reflects the grandeur of the military architecture. It was used as a defensive structure during the 17th century.

       Hauz-I-Alai: It is a unique water work built by Ala-ud-din. It was built with an aim to surmount the problem of water scarcity in the capital city of Siri.

       Hawa Mahal: Located in the pink city of Jaipur, the structure of the Hawa Mahal is a perfect blend of Rajput and Mughal architecture. It is an important landmark of the Jaipur city.

       Humayun’s Tomb: Built by Haji Begum in 1569-70, the Humayun’s Tomb enhances the Mughal style of architecture. The tomb is located in the eastern part of Delhi.

       Itmad-Ud-Daulah’s Tomb: A highly elaborate edifice the Itmad-Ud-Daulah was built between 1622 and 1628 by Nurjahan. It reflects the Islamic style of architecture.

       Jantar Mantar: The Jantar Mantar reflects the existence and spirit of science in ancient India. The intriguing structure was built in 1725 by Sawai Jai Sing II.

       Kalinjar Fort: The Kalinjar Fort is the abode of a number of monuments and sculptures, which conform to the Hindu style of architecture. It was built in the 7th century AD by Kedar Burman.

       Purana Quila: The structure amply reflects the medieval military style of architecture. It was built in the 16th century by Humayun and Sher Shah Suri.

       Quitab Minar: Built by Qutub-ud-din Aibak in 1193, the Qutub Minar is an important tourist spot in Delhi. It is a red sandstone tower, which extends to a height of 72.5 m.

       Rohtas Fort: The Rohtas Fort stands as a good example of the military style of architecture. The fortress houses a number of buildings in its precincts.

       Sher Mandal: Sher Mandal is an attractive structure built in the 16th century by Sher Shah Suri. It was here that the second Mughal emperor Humayun fell to his death.

       Siri Fort: It is a defensive fort built by Ala-ud-din Khilji. It was built with an aim to protect the people of his city from the Mongols invaders.

       Taj Mahal: No monuments can surpass the Taj Mahal, in terms of the beauty rendered. Built by Shah Jahan in 1632-53, the Taj Mahal marks the peak of Mughal architecture.

       The Gol Gumbaz: The Gol Gumbaz is the resting place of Muhammad Adil Shah, the seventh ruler of the Adil Shahi dynasty. Built in 1656, it stands as one of the most important building of Bijapur (Karnataka).

       The Red Fort: The Red Fort stands as a good example of the Mughal military architecture. It was built by Shahjahan in 1638-46. It invariably stands as a symbol of India’s Independence.

       Tughlaqabad Fort: It is a massive fort which dates back to the period of the Delhi Sultanate. It was built in the 14th century AD by Ghiyas-ud-din-Tughlaq and symbolizes the Tughlaq power.

       Victoria Memorial: Built by Lord Curzon in 106-21, the Victoria Memorial is a wonderful example of the colonial style of architecture. It is located in the heart of the Calcutta city and houses a range of beautiful artifacts.


Astrology is the study of planetary influences and their affect on the world and everything in it. Astrology is usually limited to human beings-their nature, and their affairs.

Indian Astrology is considered to be one of the oldest, most accurate and consistent form of astrology all over the world. It is a natural cosmic science based on real astronomy. The birth chart cast on the Indian System makes adjustments for the fact that our Universe (Zodiac) is moving and not fixed (the Big Bang theory). This system is over 7000 years old and proves that ancient Indians had a great grasp of astronomy much before any other civilization.Also the Indian system takes into account the fact that the zodiac is epileptic and not circular, due to which the twelve houses in a birth chart are not 30 degree each but vary according to the time of birth. Due to these differences the birth chart, cast on the Indian system would come out different from that done on any other system and is considered much more accurate. Indian astrological studies consist of 27 constellations, in 12 lunar mansions. The movements of the two luminaries – Sun and Moon, five major planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus and Mercury) and the two nodal points of the Moon i.e., Rahu and Ketu are considered, and their positions marked. Indian Astrology does not recognize extra Saturnine planets like Pluto, Neptune and Uranus.

The Moon is taken as a very important planet for predictions, though it is a satellite of the earth. The complete predictive mechanism is based on the Moon Sign and not the Sun Sign. The Moon, at the time of birth is found in a particular position or in a particular star, which is taken as the star of a person. This star is used to find the major and sub-periods of a person’s life. The Moon changes its Zodiac sign in 2¼ – 2½days compared to the Sun, which is stationary on a sign for 30 days. Therefore for every “12” changes in a year for the Sun, the Moon changes nearly “146” times, resulting in greater accuracy in prediction.

Also the Moon signifies the Mind. Since the Moon is the heavenly body closest to the earth, the magnetic influences of all other planets reach the Earth through the Moon. Also since the mind is ruled by the Moon and all influences on the Human Being whether physical, mental, psychological or supernatural is effected through the human mind, the moon is very significant. The human body which is ruled by the Sun may or may not respond to the mental / psychological / supernatural influences.

A Horoscope is thus based on detailed mathematical calculations detailing the longitude and latitude of planets at the time of birth. This portion is a science, since a horoscope if cast correctly will be same every time even if made by different people. On the other hand, the interpretation of the horoscope is a Fine Art and involves experience as well as Intuitive Powers for prediction.
This leads to two different astrologers giving differing predictions.The Vedas (1500 B.C.), which are the oldest religious literature available, bear references to this science. “Jyothisha or Astrology” is one of the limbs of the “Vedas”. Hindus were the original masters who had the thorough knowledge of astronomy and many rituals and religious rites were related to the position of planets and their motions.

Long before Kepler, Copernicus, Brahe, Galilio and other galaxy of astronomers were born, the Hindu sages had already gained much knowledge on the stellar or planetary universe.

Indian Astrology has been divided into three main branches of study: Siddanta, Samhita and Hora. Siddantas are those who are devoted to the astronomical study of celestial bodies Samhitas deal with mundane astrology, earth quakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, rainfall, weather conditions economic conditions and effects of sunspots. Another very important branch is the Phalitha Jyothisha branch, which concentrates on the system of predictions. This branch has six sub-divisions, namely, Jathaka, Gola, Prasna, Nimitta, Muhurta and Ganitha.

Apart from these schools of planetary interpretations, we have the Nadi system which gives pen pictures of life and destiny patterns of people born at 12,24,48 second intervals. These have been written on palm leaves. Very few experts can read and understand these, but the results and predictions are found to be amazingly accurate.

In India Astrology is taken very seriously and serves various purposes:

  1. To predict future events.
  2. To match the birth-charts of couples at the time of marriage to ensure a successful married life.
  3. To provide Life reading containing issues of a person’s personal life.
  4. To determine the Muhurath (the best time to start any auspicious ceremony).
  5. To determine which stars are affecting one’s life.
  6. To provide a remedy for problems.
  7. To determine the right Gemstone to be used to become successful.


Indian attire is as varied as it’s subcultures. Just as each region has its own language, food and lifestyles, so also it has its own traditional mode of dressing. A half sari worn to college in the southern states would be subject to ridicule in the northern or western regions. Intermingling due to social changes and improvement in communication has managed to give India a pan-Indian look. People from all subcultures are slowly giving way to a more uniform form of dressing. Men these days usually wear a trouser along with a shirt and women wear the sari or the salwar. Traditional clothes are still worn in traditional ceremonies or in the interior pockets of the country. Also more and more women are taking to western wear (the skirt and the pant, with shirts), specially the youth and people in large cities.Many Indian women wear earrings, nose ornaments and brightly colored bangles. Some paint a dot of color or apply a readymade Bindi, on their foreheads. The bindi is also a fashion statement and may be matching to the color of the dress or to the personality (large, small etc).

Six yards of cloth, that is all there is to the saree. Yet, this dress worn by millions of Indian women is, by far, the most elegant. It is not merely an outfit but an ornament, lending both grace and glamour to the wearer. More important, the saree epitomizes the continuity of an age-old tradition that has withstood the onslaught of many different cultures, to emerge today as a visible symbol of the resiliency, continuity and timelessness of the Indian way of life.

Each region displays a different style of draping it. This is shaped by the lifestyle and the religious inclination. The urban Indian style is by far the most common. Stiff tangails, flowing silks, elegant chiffons and heavy brocades – all of them can be easily maneuvered into this style. Tied around the waist, the saree forms a skirt with the pleats positioned in front thus allowing for free movement. The pallav or the part draped over the left shoulder is either pleated and pinned up the convenience, or is left flowing loose for glamour. This seemingly cumbersome garment is in reality an extremely versatile, meaningful and adaptable one. It suits every possible occasion, every possible activity. Washing and cleaning, carrying firewood back from the forest in the anchal (pallav) or walking long distances, can all be easily executed in a saree.The saree is worn with a short blouse or a choli, covering the upper body. The blouse is also worn with a skirt called a lehenga or ghagra. A long scarf called a duppatta (aka orna, orni, etc.) is commonly found to be part of various dresses including the salwar- Kameej and Ghagra – Choli or the Half saree. Headgear is a prominent part of the Indian attire.

The ladies generally use the dupatta or the pallav (edge) of the saree to cover their heads. The men use turbans and caps of various types. The Muslims use a different cap (topi) from those in the northeast and the Sikh turban forms an essential part of his identity and is very different from the ones worn by others on festive occasions.


Indian Mythology is not only old (1200 B.C), but also vast. The hymns of the Rig Veda are considered the oldest mythological heritage. At this time man had faith in everything around him and godliness was attached to every wonder he saw or experienced. Thus was formed the triad of the early Vedic Gods – Agni, Vayu and Surya. The Vedic Gods were mere abstractions, intangible and illusive but in the post-Vedic phase or in the Puranas the gods assumed substantial shape and individual character.

The two Itihasa or epics Ramayana and the Mahabharata were compiled in the late Vedic period. The heroes of the Vedic age gradually dislodged the shadowy gods and found their place in the Puranas. The Puranic Gods who had their seeds and roots in the Vedas gave rise to the concept of Trimurti. Thus emerged the transition of Hindu mythology from Vedic Gods (the Cosmic Trinity: Agni, Vayu and Surya) to Puranic Gods (the Hindu Trinity: Brahma – Vishnu – Mahesha). Om or Aum symbolizes the essence of Hinduism. It means oneness with the Supreme, the merging of the physical being with the spiritual. The most sacred syllable, the first sound of the Almighty – the sound from which emerges each and every other sound, whether of music or of language. In the Upanishads this sacred syllable appears as a mystic sound, regarded by scriptures as the very basis of every other sacred mantra (hymn). It is the sound not only of origination but also of dissolution. The past, present and future are all included in this one sound and all that transcends this configuration of time is also implied in Om.

The Indian pantheon consists of 33 Crore Gods. Although these gods are not individually worshipped expect for some, they have a special place in the Hindu mythology and are often seen in temples or in paintings or pictures beside the main three triads and their various manifestations. Here are some of the significant ones:

HANUMAN – the monkey god – devotee of Rama
INDRA – King of the abode of gods
YAMA – the god of death
GAYATRI – personification of the Vedic hymn
GANGA – personification of the holy river
KAMADEVA – god of love
KUBERA – god of wealth
NARADA – the wandering seer who features in almost all the Puranas
VARUNA – the god of oceans
SOMA – the moon god
VISHWAKARMA – the divine architect of the universe Other than these lesser gods there are a host of celestial beings. These are often mentioned in the various Vedas and Puranas and are much a part of the Hindu mythology as the lesser gods. Celestial beings:

APSARAS: These are beautiful ladies, who dance in the court of Indra. Indra also uses them to lure the saints and sages who by their severe penance endanger his superiority as the ruler of Swarga (Paradise of Indra). In the Vedas they were personification of vapor and in the Puranas the ballet girls in Swarga. RAMBHA, URVASI and MENAKA are the most celebrated of them.

GANDHARVAS: Gandharvas are the celestial musicians who play in the court of Indra and also when some divine act of the gods had been completed in the interest of humanity. They are said to have a great partiality for women and are said to be exceptionally handsome.

KINNARAS: are mythical beings, with a body of a man and head of a horse. They are singers at the court of Indra. They are also sometimes said to be the minstrels of Kubera’s palace at Mount Kailasa, which is also the abode of Shiva.

SIDDHAS: are classes of spirits of great purity and holiness, who dwell apart in the sky or mid-air between earth and heaven.

YAKSHA: They are the guardians of wealth and attendants of Kubera, employed to guard his gardens and treasure. They live in ALKA-PURI (yaksha-puri). The female of Yaksha is known as YAKSHINI.

Animals have a special place in Hindu mythology. One comes across various animals in Hindu mythology some, which have been personified and given a form as the centuries passed. These animals have been symbolic as the vehicles and carrier of various gods or one, which have helped the gods in various times. Some of them appear as independent divine creatures and are worshipped in various ways.

The various animals in Hindu Mythology:

AIRAVATA the elephant – vehicle of Indra
AKUPARA the tortoise – on which Earth or Prithvi rests
ANTELOPE – vehicle of Vayu and Chandra
ARVA, mythical being half horse and half bird – one of the horses of the moon
BUFFALO – vehicle of Yama
CERBURA – the three headed infernal dog of the Krishna legend
CROW – vehicle of Shani
DOG and HORSE – vehicle of Shiva as Bhairava
GARUDA the king of birds – half man and half eagle or vulture, vehicle of Vishnu
JAMBAVANT, the king of bears – ally of Rama
KAMADHENU – the cow of plenty
MAKARA or JALAMPA the mythical sea monster – vehicle of Varuna (god of water)
MOUSE – vehicle of Ganesha
NANDI the bull – vehicle of Shiva and Parvati
PARAVANI the peacock – vehicle of Kartikeya
PARROT – vehicle of Kamadeva
RAM, the he-goat – vehicle of Agni
SARAMA – dog of Indra
SHESHNAG or ANANTA the infinite – the king of Nagas, vehicle of Vishnu or the bed on which Vishnu rests
SWAN – vehicle of Saraswati and Brahma
TARKSHYA – winged horse personifying the sun
TIGER and LION – vehicle of Parvati as Kali and Durga
UCHCHAIH-SRAVAS – the eight headed king of horses produced during the churning of oceans

In Hindu religion and mythology, the nine planets occupy an important role. The planet deities are referred to as the NAVAGRAHA and are supposed to have a significant impact on the lives of individuals. Hindus worship these planets as deities, so that they may bring peace and harmony and avert any mishap.

Of the Navagrahas the first seven Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, lend their names to the days of the week: Sunday to Saturday respectively. The other two Rahu (Ascending node) and Ketu (Descending node) are also fabled as planets, the former as a planet with a head and no body and the latter as a planet with a body and no head. The Navgrahas are propitiated because of their sinister effects (Saturn, Rahu and Ketu) and for their favorable influences (Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Mars, the sun and the moon). In addition to the nine planets, twenty seven nakshatras (constellations) through which the moon passes and twelve signs of zodiac of the sun, regarded as deities, are consulted at births, marriages and on al occasions of family rejoicing, distress or calamity. Shanti (Peace) propitiation ceremony is held to appease any unfavorable constellations.

Posted by: ramasamypravesh | January 29, 2011


Map Colors

The Role of Colors on Maps

By Matt Rosenberg

Cartographers utilize color on a map to represent certain features. Color use is often consistent across different types of maps by different cartographers or publishers. Map colors are (or should be, for a professional looking map) always consistent on a single map.

Many colors used on maps have a relationship to the object or feature on the ground. For example, blue is almost always the color chosen for fresh water or ocean (bust blue may not just represent water).

Political maps, which show more human created features (especially boundaries), usually use more map colors than physical maps, which represent the landscape often without regard for human modification.

Political maps will often use four or more colors to represent different countries or internal divisions of countries (such as states). Political maps will also use such colors as blue for water and black and/or red for cities, roads, and railways. Political maps will also often use black to show boundaries, differing the type of dashes and/or dots used in the line to represent the type of boundary – international, state, or county or other political subdivision.

Physical maps commonly use color most dramatically to show changes in elevation. A palette of greens is often used to display common elevations. Dark green usually represents low-lying land with lighter shades of green used for higher elevations. In the higher elevations, physical maps will often use a palette of light brown to dark brown to show higher elevations. Such maps will commonly use reds or white or purples to represent the highest elevations on the map.

With such a map that uses shades of greens, browns, and the like, it is very important to remember that the color does not represent the ground cover. For example, just because the Mojave Desert is shown in green due to the low elevation, it doesn’t mean that the desert is lush with green crops. Likewise, the peaks of mountains shown in white does not indicate that the mountains are capped in ice and snow all year long.

On physical maps, blues are used for water, with darker blues used for the deepest water and lighter blues used for more shallow water. For elevations below sea level, a green-grey or red or blue-grey or some other color is used.

Road maps and other general use maps are often a jumble of color. They use map colors in a variety of ways…

  • Blue – lakes, rivers, streams, oceans, reservoirs, highways, local borders
  • Red – major highways, roads, urban areas, airports, special interest sites, military sites, place names, buildings, borders
  • Yellow – built-up or urban areas
  • Green – parks, golf courses, reservations, forest, orchards, highways
  • Brown – deserts, historical sites, national parks, military reservations or bases, contour (elevation) lines
  • Black – roads, railroads, highways, bridges, place names, buildings, borders
  • Purple – highways, (also used on U.S.G.S. topographic maps to represent features added to the map since the original survey)

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